Glashütten des Bayerischen Waldsenglishfrançaisdeutsch

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Der Bayerische Wald zählt zu den waldreichsten Mittelgebirgen Deutschlands und bestand noch bis zum 11. Jahrhundert aus Urwald. Das Gebiet wurde zwischen dem 11. und dem 14. Jahrhundert vor allem durch die Rodungs- und Urbarmachungstätigkeit der Grafen von Bogen und des Benediktinerklosters Niederalteich besiedelt.
Die Glasherstellung im Bayerischen Wald selbst hat bereits eine Geschichte von sieben Jahrhunderten. Eine der ältesten bayerischen Familien, die heute noch Glas herstellen ist die Familie Freiherr von Poschinger. Bereits 1140 wird der erste Poschinger urkundlich im Bayerischen Wald erwähnt. Im Laufe der Jahrhunderte betrieb die Familie Glashütten in Spiegelhütte, Buchenau, Oberzwieselau und Theresienthal. Das Glashüttengut und die Hütte in Frauenau konnten sich als einzige ihrer Art über Jahrhunderte hinweg erhalten.
Ein wesentlicher Grund für das Entstehen der Waldglashütten war vermutlich das Bestreben der Grundherren, die entlegenen und unerschlossenen Urwälder gewinnbringend nutzen zu wollen. Gerade die großen Urwaldgebiete, die für eine normale Besiedelung und für eine landwirtschaftliche Nutzung nicht in Frage kamen, waren für Glashütten eine ideale Basis. Zugleich wurde dabei das neu erschlossene Gebiet dabei auch urbar gemacht.
Entlang der bayerisch-böhmischen Grenze, etwa vom Arber bis zum Rachel gehörten die Wälder in einer Tiefe von vier bis zehn Kilometern ausschließlich zu den Glashüttengütern. Ein vererbliches und veräußerliches Erbrecht war für die Glashüttenmeister ein Anreiz, die Wälder zu einer dauerhaften Wirtschaftsgrundlage zu machen. Dadurch war auch den Grundherren eine ständige Zinszahlung garantiert.
Ein weiterer Grund für das Entstehen der zahlreichen Waldglashütten ist die Tatsache, dass neben dem Rohstoff Holz auch Quarz und Wasser in ausreichender Menge vorhanden war. Holz wurde sowohl zur Feuerung der Schmelzöfen, zum Bau der Glashütten und Unterkünfte, als auch zur Herstellung der zum Glasmachen unentbehrlichen Pottasche benötigt. Quarz, der etwa ein Drittel der Glasschmelze ausmachte, fand sich in ausreichender Menge im kristallinen Untergrund des Bayerischen Waldes. Zur Glasherstellung mussten also nur der Kalk, der etwa zehn Prozent an der Glasmasse beteiligt war, der Ton für die Schmelzhäfen und einige, nur in kleinen Mengen benötigte seltene Erden für Farbglas von außen herbeigeschafft werden. Die zahlreichen Bäche trieben die Wasserräder der Pocher und Sägen der Glashütten an.
Die Glasherstellung und -veredlung war über Generationen hinweg eine der wichtigsten Lebensadern des Bayerischen Waldes. Heute hat diese Handwerkskunst des Bayerischen Waldes mit schweren Problemen zu kämpfen, da immer mehr industriell gefertigtes Glas aus anderen Ländern den Markt überschwemmt.
Im letzten Jahrhundert erfolgte auch in den Glashütten des Bayerischen Waldes mehr und mehr die Umstellung von Handarbeit auf Maschinenproduktion. Noch kann man jedoch die traditionelle Glasherstellung in einigen der verbliebenen Glashütten verfolgen. Vor allem durch die Importe und die Präsenz ausländischer Verkaufsniederlassungen sind in der Glasbranche in den letzten Jahren Arbeitsplätze im vierstelligen Bereich weggefallen.
Aber nicht nur dadurch, dass Menschenhand mehr und mehr von Maschinen ersetzt wird ist als Untergang der traditionellen Glashütten zu betrachten, sondern auch die Tatsache dass längst nicht mehr alles Glas, das im Bayerischen Wald gekauft wird auch wirklich aus dem Bayerischen Wald kommt und dem Anspruch eines Glasbläsers genügen würde.

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